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        口語體語音、語法、詞匯和句子結構的特點

        發布時間: 2023-12-06 09:27:14   作者:etogether.net   來源: 網絡   瀏覽次數:
        摘要: 口語體具有發音流暢、容易上口、快速、大量采用單音節或少音節詞匯以及省略或合成音位、音節等特點。


        1. 語音層次

        由于英語語音中音位的同化(assimilation)、音長(lengthening)、連讀(liaison)和省略(elision)等現象,口語體具有發音流暢、容易上口、快速、大量采用單音節或少音節詞匯以及省略或合成音位、音節等特點。下面的例子常見于中間語體尤其是非正式語體中,由于同化和元音、音節的省略,原來兩個或三個單詞合成了一個,如:

        don't know → dunno

        this year → thish-yer

        last year → las-cher

        because; of course → 'cos

        must have –→ must of

        lot of → lotta

        rock and roll → rock'n'roll

        What is the matter? → Whatsa matter?

        此外,譯員還應根據說話者的語調、重音、語速、節奏等正確把握信息,并在口譯時適當運用語調、重音等將說話者的中心思想以及“熱情”、“冷淡”、“憤怒”、“風趣”等情緒或態度準確地表達出來。


        2. 語法和句法層次

        和書面體相比,英語口語體的句子較簡短,結構也要松弛、靈活得多,如用并列句代替主從復合句,或干脆省略連接詞,用動詞的縮略形式等等。如:

        I'll stay in Beijing until the end of next week-—(because) I want to discuss the matter with Mr. Zhu.

        英語口語體一般不用分詞短語或無動詞分句的形式,而用支句或單獨分句,如:

        (1) 書面體:Known abroad as kungfu or martial arts,wushu has been practiced for several thousand years by the working people in China.

        口語體:Wushu is known abroad as kungfu or martial arts;it has been practiced for several thousand years by the working people in China.

        (2) 書面體: While some old contradictions and confrontations have disappeared, new ones have cropped up, rendering our world neither tranquil nor peaceful.

        口語體: While some old contradictions and confrontations have disappeared, new ones have cropped up; our world is neither tranquil nor peaceful.

        (3) 書面體:The gap between the North and the South continue to widen, with the rich countries becoming richer and the poor poorer.

        口語體: The gap between the North and the South continue to widen. The rich countries are becoming richer and the poor poorer.

        (4) 書面體:The capital of the People's Republic of China,Beijing is the country's political, economic, and cultural center.

        口語體:Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the country's political, economic, and cultural center.

        過于冗長或結構復雜的句子,口譯時總是可以分成若干簡短的單句來表達同樣的意思,如:

        (1) 書面體:Over the long years,whichever exploiting class that controlled national or local power, irrespective of the nationality to which it belonged, invariably pursued a policy of national oppression against the other

        nationalities and brought misery to people of all the nationalities, with the smaller ones suffering the most severely.

        口語體:Over the long years,no matter which exploiting class controlled national or local power, and no matter which nationality it belonged, it always oppressed and brought misery to the people of all the nationalities. The smaller ones suffered the most.


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